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This paper gives a probabilistic model for the interference in optical code-division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems using a conventional and hard-limiting receiver that relates the code parameters to the system performance. It is shown that for a specified number of wavelengths and chip times, the code weight and maximum collision parameter (MCP) of the code can be optimized in order to maximize the numbers of active and/or potential users. Design rules to maximize the number of active users under certain system constraint are also provided. In this study, the spectral efficiency limits in the O-CDMA system using conventional and hard-limiting receivers are studied. It is worth mentioning that the models offered in this paper do not require the knowledge of the specific codes in the code set and provide the full statistics of the interference under the random code assumption.