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Several proposed applications of thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery devices in the automotive industry are reviewed. To assess the feasibility of these applications at a vehicle level, the effect of electrical load and weight on fuel economy for a series of cars and trucks was investigated. These results will help us to identify the appropriate vehicle platforms for TE waste heat recovery, and to establish a set of requirements for an automotive TE waste heat recovery subsystem. The key to the realization of this technology is still the continued development of new materials with increased TE efficiency.