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An extended event graph with negative places and tokens for time window constraints

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2 Author(s)
Tae-Eog Lee ; Dept. of Ind. Eng., Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci. & Technol., Daejeon, South Korea ; Seong-Ho Park

We introduce places with negative holding times and tokens with negative token counts into a timed event graph in order to model and analyze time window constraints. We extend the enabling and firing rules for such an extended event graph named a negative event graph (NEG). We develop necessary and sufficient conditions based on the circuits for which the NEG is live, that is, an infinite sequence of feasible firing epochs exist for each transition. We prove that the minimum cycle time is the same as the maximum circuit ratio of the circuits with positive token counts. We also show that when there exists circuits with negative token counts, the maximum cycle time is bounded and the same as the minimum circuit ratio of such circuits. A scheduling example for a robot-based cluster tool with wafer residency time constraints for semiconductor manufacturing is explained. Note to Practitioners-Scheduling and control problems for modern man-made systems, including automated manufacturing systems such as cluster tools for semiconductor manufacturing, microcircuits, and real-time software systems, are usually modeled as discrete event systems. Such systems often have strict time constraints on timings of some events. Our results can be used for identifying whether there can be a feasible schedule that satisfies all time constraints, computing the range of the feasible cycle times, and determining a steady schedule with the minimum cycle time. By using the feasibility condition, we also can accommodate the system configuration, the task times, and the task sequence so that the system can satisfy the time constraints while meeting the target cycle time. Such practice is already used for real cluster tool engineering. We have more results on implementing a real-time scheduler and controller for time constrained systems.

Published in:

Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 4 )