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We derive a novel space-time code (STC) design criterion for continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) over frequency-nonselective fading channels. Our derivation is based on a specific matrix that is related to the input symbols of the CPFSK modulators. With this code-design criterion, we propose a simple interleaved space-time encoding scheme for CPFSK modulation over frequency-nonselective correlated fading channels to exploit potential temporal and spatial diversity advantages. Such an encoding scheme consists of a ring convolutional encoder and a spatial encoder, between which a convolutional interleaver is placed. A decoding algorithm that generates symbol metrics for the Viterbi decoder of convolutional codes from the spatial modulation trellis is examined. Simulation results confirm that the advantages of the combination of the interleaved convolutional encoding (for temporal diversity) and the spatial encoding (for spatial diversity) are promising for various system parameters.