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In this paper, we present an original method for the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the scoliotic rib cage from a planar and a conventional pair of calibrated radiographic images (postero-anterior with normal incidence and lateral). To this end, we first present a robust method for estimating the model parameters in a mixture of probabilistic principal component analyzers (PPCA). This method is based on the stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm. Parameters of this mixture model are used to constrain the 3-D biplanar reconstruction problem of scoliotic rib cage. More precisely, the proposed PPCA mixture model is exploited for dimensionality reduction and to obtain a set of probabilistic prior models associated with each detected class of pathological deformations observed on a representative training scoliotic rib cage population. By using an appropriate likelihood, for each considered class-conditional prior model, the proposed 3-D reconstruction is stated as an energy function minimization problem, which is solved with an exploration/selection algorithm. The optimal 3-D reconstruction then corresponds to the class of deformation and parameters leading to the minimal energy. This 3-D method of reconstruction has been successfully tested and validated on a database of 20 pairs of biplanar radiographic images of scoliotic patients, yielding very promising results. As an alternative to computed tomography-scan 3-D reconstruction this scheme has the advantage of low radiation for the patient, and may also be used for diagnosis and evaluation of deformity of a scoliotic rib cage. The proposed method remains sufficiently general to be applied to other reconstruction problems for which a database of objects to be reconstructed is available (with two or more radiographic views).