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In this paper, efficient recursive structures for computing arbitrary length M-dimensional (M-D) discrete cosine transform (DCT) and its inverse DCT (IDCT) are proposed. The M-D DCT and IDCT are first converted into condensed one-dimensional (1-D) DCT and discrete sine transform (DST) with a regular preprocessing procedure. The recursive filters for condensed 1-D DCT/DST are then derived by using Chebyshev polynomials to compute M-D DCT/IDCT without data transposition. The proposed structures require fewer recursive loops than traditional 1-D recursive structures, which are realized in M passes and (M-1) data transposition by the so-called row-column approach. With advantages of fewer recursive loops and no transposition memory, the proposed structures attain more accurate results and less power consumption than traditional row-column structures. The proposed recursive M-D DCT/IDCT structures are suitable for very large-scale integration implementation due to regular and modular features.