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A simple and cost-effective upgrade of existing passive optical networks (PONs) is proposed, which realizes service overlay by novel spectral-shaping line codes. A hierarchical coding procedure allows processing simplicity and achieves desired long-term spectral properties. Different code rates are supported, and the spectral shape can be properly tailored to adapt to different systems. The computation can be simplified by quantization of trigonometric functions. DC balance is achieved by passing the dc residual between processing windows. The proposed line codes tend to introduce bit transitions to avoid long consecutive identical bits and facilitate receiver clock recovery. Experiments demonstrate and compare several different optimized line codes. For a specific tolerable interference level, the optimal line code can easily be determined, which maximizes the data throughput. The service overlay using the line-coding technique leaves existing services and field-deployed fibers untouched but fully functional, providing a very flexible and economic way to upgrade existing PONs.