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Measurement of coefficient of friction between surfaces is of interest in numerous engineering applications. Although laboratory tests of material samples in tribological systems are used to measure the friction coefficient, on-line friction measurement on newly manufactured surfaces, or between two interacting surfaces of interest, is nonexistent. In this paper, we describe a new sensor, called the tribosensor, that accomplishes real-time friction coefficient measurement between materials, where one of the two materials in the tribological pair is being processed or manufactured at high speeds, such as in paper, plastics, aluminum, and other flexible materials. This paper discusses the operating principle of the sensor, design configuration, and performance characterization. Comparison with traditional off-line laboratory measurements is also presented.