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Distribution system grounding fundamentals

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4 Author(s)
Thomas, E.S. ; Utility Electr. Consultants, Raleigh, NC, USA ; Dagenhart, J.B. ; Barber, R.A. ; Clapp, Allen L.

This article is an overview of the various relationships between neutral currents, ground currents, electrode impedances, and voltage potentials that are encountered in the operation of multi-grounded wye distribution systems. This system continuation is the most commonly used configuration among U.S. domestic utilities. Voltages range from 4.16/2.4 kV to 34.5/19.9 kV. The most common system voltages are 15- and 25-kV class systems with nominal operating voltages on rural systems generally being 12.47/7.2 kV and 24.9/14.4 kV. The article aims to review the relationships that might be encountered due to system grounding and provide an overview of common installations and their relative effectiveness.

Published in:

Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 5 )

Date of Publication:

Sept.-Oct. 2005

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