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With the introduction of the Airbus A380, the commercial aircraft industry was in the process of defining new standards that incorporate the latest digital information techniques, such as the avionics full-duplex switched Ethernet (AFDX) on-board, real-time network. The AFDX standard, a major innovation in aircraft technology first deployed on the Airbus A380, introduces telecom Ethernet-based technology as well as a switch connection topology, rather than part-to-part links or buses. This article describes the different modular elements of the ground and flight test computers, as well as the hardware and software tuning and performance analysis tools that have been developed around these computers. All of these elements are now in operation and have demonstrated the utility of the AFDX tools as real concepts that can be reused for other programs.