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We present a new parallel multiresolution volume rendering framework for large-scale time-varying data visualization using the wavelet-based time-space partitioning (WTSP) tree. Utilizing the wavelet transform, a large-scale time-varying data set is converted into a space-time multiresolution data hierarchy, and is stored in a time-space partitioning (TSP) tree. To eliminate the parent-child data dependency for reconstruction and achieve load-balanced rendering, we design an algorithm to partition the WTSP tree and distribute the wavelet-compressed data along hierarchical space-filling curves with error-guided bucketization. At run time, the WTSP tree is traversed according to the user-specified time step and tolerances of both spatial and temporal errors. Data blocks of different spatio-temporal resolutions are reconstructed and rendered to compose the final image in parallel. We demonstrate that our algorithm can reduce the run-time communication cost to a minimum and ensure a well-balanced workload among processors when visualizing gigabytes of time-varying data on a PC cluster.