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Due to the broadcast nature of radio transmissions, communications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are more susceptible to malicious traffic analysis. In this paper we propose a novel anonymous on-demand routing protocol, termed MASK, to enable anonymous communications thereby thwarting possible traffic analysis attacks. Based on a new cryptographic concept called pairing, we first propose an anonymous neighborhood authentication protocol which allows neighboring nodes to authenticate each other without revealing their identities. Then utilizing the secret pairwise link identifiers and keys established between neighbors during the neighborhood authentication process, MASK fulfills the routing and packet forwarding tasks nicely without disclosing the identities of participating nodes under a rather strong adversarial model. MASK provides the desirable sender and receiver anonymity, as well as the relationship anonymity of the sender and receiver. It is also resistant to a wide range of adversarial attacks. Moreover, MASK preserves the routing efficiency in contrast to previous proposals. Detailed anonymity analysis and simulation studies are carried out to validate and justify the effectiveness of MASK.