Skip to Main Content
Understanding how water behaves within nanoscale structures is critical in deciphering biological information. For example, water plays a key role in protein structure and function, cell architecture, and cell function. We present a unique nanogap biosensor that is capable of detecting changes in the structure of water and ice. Using dielectric spectroscopy inside a nanoscale cavity between two electrodes, we observe the structural changes in a network of small molecules such as water. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of a nanogap biosensor on detecting the changes in structure of water as it freezes under different ionic conditions.