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The problem of mobile robot navigation is a wide and complex one. The environments which a robot can encounter vary from static indoor areas to fast-changing dynamic ones. The goal of the robot may be reaching a prescribed destination, following a pre-defined trajectory or mapping an area for a later use. Extensive research efforts have been made worldwide on different aspects of mobile robot navigation. Different methodology were researched on this topic each with its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the latest techniques of mobile robot navigation. The aim is to identify key gaps in the literature and suggest potential for further research in these areas.