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A 2.45-GHz RFID tag chip was designed on standard 0.25- μm CMOS process. Using only MOS devices, the low-Vt rectifier circuit produces 100 μW of power with 2 dBm input. The tag IC with bidirectional communication and anti-collision features can be read from a distance of up to 15 cm under a reader power of 250 mW. The die area of 0.79 mm2 includes a 128-bit rewritable non-volatile memory.