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From an operations and maintenance perspective, most users treat GIS in the same manner as AIS. This is certainly the reasonable approach as long as 99% of the substations in the USA and Canada are AIS. The general differences noted for monitoring, operations and maintenance are summarized. As for comparison to AIS, GIS provides more extensive local monitoring capabilities. Due to the higher equipment cost and functional integration in GIS a more comprehensive monitoring makes a lot of sense, both from an operational and financial perspective. It is noted that some of these new technologies have an impact not only on operational and maintenance strategies but also on the design of ancillary equipment.