Skip to Main Content
This paper reports on the detection of sheet charge densities in silicon devices using an improved noninvasive optical probe based on the detection of free-carrier optical dispersion using a multilongitudinal-mode 1.3-µm semiconductor laser. The improved system incorporates a differential detection technique and a Wollaston prism that allows the use of the multimode laser. These changes increase stability, sensitivity, and bandwidth, allow near shot-noise limited operation, reduce required optical power, and simplify the apparatus. The technique can be applied to probe electronic signals or, conversely, to modulate light using controlled electronic signals. Simple demonstrations of each application are presented.