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Fabrication and characterization of transducer elements in two-dimensional arrays for medical ultrasound imaging

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2 Author(s)
Turnbull, D.H. ; Dept. of Med. Biophys., Toronto Univ., Ont., Canada ; Foster, F.S.

Some of the problems of developing a two-dimensional (2-D) transducer array for medical imaging are examined. The fabrication of a 2-D array material consisting of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements separated by epoxy is discussed. Ultrasound pulses and transmitted radiation patterns from individual elements in the arrays are measured. A diffraction theory for the continuous wave pressure field of a 2-D array element is generalized to include both electrical and acoustical cross-coupling between elements. This theory can be fit to model the measured radiation patterns of 2-D array elements, giving an indication of the level of cross-coupling in the array, and the velocity of the acoustic cross-coupling wave. Improvements in bandwidth and cross-coupling resulting from the inclusion of a front acoustic matching layer are demonstrated, and the effects of including a lossy backing material on the array are discussed. A broadband electrical matching network is described, and pulse-echo waveforms and insertion loss from a 2-D array element are measured.<>

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:39 ,  Issue: 4 )