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Experimental observation of avalanche multiplication in charge-coupled devices

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3 Author(s)
Madan, S.K. ; Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India ; Bhaumik, B. ; Vasi, J.M.

Avalanche multiplication of signal charge in surface-channel charge-coupled devices is reported in this paper. Experimental observations show that avalanche multiplication takes place when the electrons are made to fall down a steep barrier of more than 8 V in an overlapping gate structure. For a 16-V fall, the gain in charge is about 3-percent per transfer. A simple model is developed which explains the experimental data reasonably well. The upper limit to the amplitude of clock voltages that can be applied to a CCD is likely to be determined by this avalanche multiplication mechanism rather than the oxide breakdown criterion.

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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 6 )