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Aluminum—Silicon Schottky barriers and ohmic contacts in integrated circuits

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1 Author(s)
Card, H.C. ; Columbia University, New York, NY

Experimental observations (electrical characteristics and in depth Auger analysis) have been made of the interface behavior in aluminum-silicon contacts. The barrier heights of these contacts (φbnfor n-type, φbpfor p-type silicon) are sensitive to heat treatments (HT) that are a part of normal integrated circuit processing. If oxide layers (≃20 Å) are present in the Al-Si interface, φbncan be as low as 0.45 eV and φbpas high as 0.75 eV. One can obtain reproducible barrier heights φbp≃ 0.7 eV and φbp≃ 0.5 eV by HT at T ≤ 300deg;C. As the temperature of HT is increased (up to ≃ 550deg;C) φbncan reach ≃ 0.9 eV and φbpdrop to < 0.35 eV. The HT at higher temperatures are accompanied by changes in the Al and Si profiles across the interface region. Two mechanisms have been found to be responsible for the changes in barrier height: 1) the removal of positive charges from the oxide, and 2) metallurgical reactions between the Al and Si. These two mechanisms have been separated and their individual behaviors qualified.

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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:23 ,  Issue: 6 )