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To achieve the high throughput necessary for a practical X-ray lithographic system, we have devised a new overall approach to X-ray lithography based on the use of X-rays with wavelengths of 4-6 Å rather than the 8.34-Å wavelength used in previous work. The principal advantage of the shorter wavelengths is that they allow a system to have X-ray windows so that large area patterns can be replicated under ambient conditions. In addition, the shorter wavelengths simplify the selection of mask substrate materials; thus we have developed a new X-ray mask structure using an optically transparent Mylar substrate. This permits realignment to be done by optical means. We also report results obtained with a new negative resist with high sensitivity to the shorter wavelength X-rays. We have achieved the replication of submicron size features using a 4.6-Å rhodium X-ray source, a Mylar mask with 7000-Å thick gold patterns, and the new resist, and have demonstrated the practicality of this system by the fabrication of propagating magnetic bubble structures with small features.