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Transport equations are derived for particles, momentum, and energy of electrons in a semiconductor with two distinct valleys in the conduction band, such as GaAs. Care is taken to state and discuss the assumptions which are made in the derivation. The collision processes are expressed in terms of relaxation times. The accuracy is improved by considering these to depend on the average kinetic energy rather than the electron temperature. Other transport equations used in the literature are discussed, and shown to be incomplete and inaccurate in many cases. In particular, the usual assumption that the mobility and diffusion constant depend locally on the electric field strength is shown to be incorrect. Rather, these quantities should be taken as functions of the local average velocity of electrons in the lower valley.