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Evaluation of the DC parameters and noise transport in the gun region of an injected-beam crossed-field diode

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2 Author(s)
R. P. Wadhwa ; The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; J. E. Rowe

A half-Maxwellian y -component velocity distribution and a full-Maxwellian z -component velocity distribution are assumed in order to evaluate the position and depth, ymand Vm, of the potential minimum as a boundary-value problem. The various dc parameters such as the voltage distribution, space-charge density, velocity and current density components and trajectories are then evaluated as an initial-value problem. The results obtained in this manner agree closely with the results obtained from the Kino gun model except that the y -component current density is not constant, as is usually assumed in the Kino gun model. The steady-state parameters are calculated here for both temperature-limited and space-charge-llmited conditions. The Kino gun results are shown to be essentially those for space-charge-limited operation. Even though the injection conditions under the two types of operation are identical, the formation of a potential minimum considerably changes the electron trajectories and the corresponding velocity components. The growth rate of a hybrid wave is reduced as ωpis decreased and/or \omega /\omega _{c} is increased, and the propagation constants of the two conventional space-charge waves are modified, the over-all growth rate of the slow wave being greater than that of the fast wave. For large values of ωpthe conventional fast space-charge wave is a backward wave, although it becomes a forward wave if \omega /\omega _{c} is large. It is noticed that the conditions in the gun region are more favorable to the existence of low-frequency perturbations. Based upon these results several experimental observations made at various laboratories are explained qualitatively.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 4 )