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This paper discusses estimation and guidance strategies for vision-based target tracking. Specific applications include formation control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and air-to-air refueling. We assume that no information is communicated between the aircraft, and only passive 2D vision information is available to maintain formation. To improve the robustness of the estimation process with respect to unknown target aircraft acceleration, the nonlinear estimator (EKF) is augmented with an adaptive neural network (NN). The guidance strategy involves augmenting the inverting solution of nonlinear line-of-sight (LOS) range kinematics with the output of an adaptive NN to compensate for target aircraft LOS velocity. Simulation results are presented that illustrate the various approaches.