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The design and implementation of a multiple model nonlinear filter (MMNLF) for ground target tracking using ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar measurements is described. Like the well-known interacting multiple model Kalman filter (IMMKF), the MMNLF is based on the theory of hybrid stochastic systems. However, since it models the probability distribution for the target in a region, rather than just the distribution's first and second moments, a nonlinear filter is able to capture more fine-grained detail of the target motion and requires fewer models than typical IMMKF implementations. This is illustrated here with a two-model MMNLF in which one motion model incorporates terrain constraints while the second is a nearly constant velocity (CV) model. Another feature of the MMNLF is that it enables incorporation of prethresholded measurements. To implement the filter, the target state conditional probability density is discretized on a set of moving grids and recursively updated with sensor measurements via Bayes' formula. The conditional density is time updated between sensor measurements using alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite difference methods, generalized for this hybrid application. In simulation testing against low signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) targets, the MMNLF is able to maintain track in situations where single model filters based on either of the component models or filters that use thresholded data fail. Potential applications of this work include detection and tracking of foliage-obscured moving targets.
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:41 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: April 2005