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The optimal signature sequences that maximize the sum capacity of a direct sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system are characterized in the general case of symbol delay profile and user power constraints. It is shown that the optimal sum capacity of the symbol asynchronous system equals that of the symbol synchronous system with the same user power constraints. With the optimal signature sequence set, the maximum sum capacity is achieved with white Gaussian input signals. The existence of the optimal signature sequence set is proved by the proposal of an explicit construction method for arbitrary user delay profiles and power constraints.