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This letter proposes a building characterization technique for L-band polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. This characterization consists of building identification and height estimation. Initially, a polarimetric interferometric segmentation is performed to isolate buildings from their surroundings. This classification identifies three basic categories: single bounce, double bounce, and volume diffusion. In order to compensate for the misclassifications among the volume and the double-bounce classes, interferometric phases given by the high-resolution Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) method are analyzed. Once buildings are localized, a phase-to-height procedure is applied to retrieve building height information. The method is validated using E-SAR, German Aerospace Center (DLR) fully polarimetric SAR data, at L-band, repeat-pass mode, over the Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, test site, with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m in range and azimuth. More than 80% of buildings are retrieved with acceptably accurate height estimates.