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A novel adaptive inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging technique is proposed for targets with nonuniform motion. The proposed algorithm is referred to as the generalized range-Doppler (GRD) ISAR imaging technique and is based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). By utilizing this technique, clear ISAR imaging can be achieved for nonuniformly moving targets without involvement of complex motion compensation. Simulation results have proved that the new algorithm is robust and also computationally efficient as compared with previously reported algorithms such as joint time-frequency (JTF) imaging.