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We present a systematic comparison of machine learning methods applied to the problem of fully automatic recognition of facial expressions. We report results on a series of experiments comparing recognition engines, including AdaBoost, support vector machines, linear discriminant analysis. We also explored feature selection techniques, including the use of AdaBoost for feature selection prior to classification by SVM or LDA. Best results were obtained by selecting a subset of Gabor filters using AdaBoost followed by classification with support vector machines. The system operates in real-time, and obtained 93% correct generalization to novel subjects for a 7-way forced choice on the Cohn-Kanade expression dataset. The outputs of the classifiers change smoothly as a function of time and thus can be used to measure facial expression dynamics. We applied the system to to fully automated recognition of facial actions (FACS). The present system classifies 17 action units, whether they occur singly or in combination with other actions, with a mean accuracy of 94.8%. We present preliminary results for applying this system to spontaneous facial expressions.
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005. CVPR 2005. IEEE Computer Society Conference on (Volume:2 )
Date of Conference: 20-25 June 2005