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The reconstruction of 3D scenes constituted by straight lines can find many applications both in computer vision and in mobile robotics. Most of the approaches to this problem involve either stereo-vision or the analysis of a sequence of images taken from different viewpoints: in both cases, the solution of the correspondence problem is required. This paper studies the localization of straight lines in 3D space from single ID images, acquired by a catadioptric camera. In general, using a noncentral camera, the viewing rays starting from the points of a straight line constitute a non-planar surface: if this non-planar surface only contains one straight line, other than the viewing rays, then the straight line can univocally be localized. Some conditions for the univocal localization of straight lines are derived. A simple technique for the straight line localization is presented, and some preliminary experimental results are discussed.