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The pressure of fundamental limits on classical computation and the promise of exponential speedups from quantum effects have recently brought quantum circuits to the attention of the EDA community (Iwama et al., 2002; Shende et al., 2003; Bullock and Markov, 2003; Shende et al., 2004; Hung et al., 2004). We discuss efficient circuits to initialize quantum registers and implement generic quantum computations. Our techniques yield circuits that are twice as small as the best previously published technique. Moreover, a theoretical lower bound shows that our new circuits can be improved by at most a factor of two. Further, the circuits grow by at most a factor of nine under severe architectural restrictions.