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Automated 3-D reconstruction of the surface of live early-stage amphibian embryos

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2 Author(s)
Bootsma, G.J. ; Image Guided Therapy Group, Princess Margaret Hosp., Toronto, Ont., Canada ; Brodland, G.W.

Although three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the surfaces of live embryos are vital to understanding embryo development, morphogenetic tissue movements and other factors have prevented the automation of this task. Here, we report an integrated set of software algorithms that overcome these challenges, making it possible to completely automate the reconstruction of embryo surfaces and other textured surfaces from multiview images. The process involves: 1) building accurate point correspondences using a robust deformable template block matching algorithm; 2) removing outliers using fundamental matrix calculations in conjunction with a RANSAC algorithm; 3) generating 3-D point clouds using a bundle adjustment algorithm that includes camera position and distortion corrections; 4) meshing the point clouds into triangulated surfaces using a Tight Cocone algorithm that produces water tight models; 5) refining surfaces using midpoint insertion and Laplacian smoothing algorithms; and 6) repeating these steps until a measure of convergence G, the rms difference between successive reconstructions, is below a specified threshold. Reconstructions were made of 2.2-mm diameter, neurulation-stage axolotl (amphibian) embryos using 44 multiview images collected with a robotic microscope. A typical final model (sixth iteration) contained 3787 points and 7562 triangles and had an error measure of G=5.9 μm.

Published in:

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 8 )