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Quadrupole resonance (QR) is a novel technology recently applied to landmine detection. The detection process is specific to the chemistry of the explosive, and therefore is less susceptible to the types of false alarms experienced by metal detectors and ground-penetrating radars. Although QR is vulnerable to radio-frequency interference (RFI) when the sensor is deployed in the field, adaptive RFI mitigation can remove most of the RFI. In this paper, advanced signal processing algorithms applied to the postmitigation signal are studied to enhance explosive detection. A new Kalman filtering strategy is proposed to estimate and detect the QR signal in the postmitigation signal. The results using both simulated data and experimental data show that the proposed algorithm can provide robust landmine detection performance.