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UWB technology provides an excellent means for wireless positioning due to its high resolution capability in the time domain. Its ability to resolve multipath components makes it possible to obtain accurate location estimates without the need for complex estimation algorithms. In this article, theoretical limits for TOA estimation and TOA-based location estimation for UWB systems have been considered. Due to the complexity of the optimal schemes, suboptimal but practical alternatives have been emphasized. Performance limits for hybrid TOA/SS and TDOA/SS schemes have also been considered. Although the fundamental mechanisms for localization, including AOA-, TOA-, TDOA-, and SS-based methods, apply to all radio air interface, some positioning techniques are favored by UWB-based systems using ultrawide bandwidths.