Scheduled System Maintenance:
Some services will be unavailable Sunday, March 29th through Monday, March 30th. We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Atomichron®: The atomic clock from concept to commercial product

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Forman, P. ; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA

The first half of this paper (Sections I-III) gives an overview of the development of atomic clocks from the earliest suggestions that atoms could provide superlative frequency and time standards to the realization of a cesium-beam device (1955) capable of assuming this role in a national standards laboratory. The second half (Sections IV and V) describes in considerably greater detail J. R. Zacharias' program of atomic beam clock development from its inception early in 1953 in MIT's Research Laboratory of Electronics to its striking practical success late in 1956 in the National Company's first commercial model.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:73 ,  Issue: 7 )