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Spectral coherence analysis is unrivaled as a quantitative tool over a range of practical problems in seismic interpretation, data processing, quality assessment for data acquisition, and research. Its great virtue is its ability to supply the detailed error information necessary for a thorough interpretation of results. Ordinary coherence analysis is employed in line intersection analysis and the design of filters to cross-equalize differently acquired seismic sections in a given area; both ordinary and partial coherence methods are indispensable in matching synthetic seismograms and seismic data; and multiple coherences are used to estimate the coherent signal and incoherent noise content of seismic sections and gathers. The precise meaning of the signal and noise estimates output by coherent analysis has to be related to the particular technique employed and the type of data input to it. The principles and procedures for analyzing seismic data with these methods are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples.