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The development of television broadcasting in Europe is outlined, with particular reference to the circumstances in which operation in the UHF band was introduced. The principles of frequency-assignment planning, together with their application in the case of UHF television, are then described. Attention is drawn to the factors taken into account in the preparation of an internationally agreed frequency-assignment plan for the UHF band, making provision for full national coverage of at least three television program services in each European country. Next follows a description of the present situation, based on a table showing the changes in the principal characteristics of 46 television program services in Western Europe occurring during the period 1970-1980. It is emphasized that UHF operation is now an integral part of the European broadcasting scene, and that in two major countries viewing of UHF transmissions is predominant. After a description of the use of UHF rebroadcast networks as an economical means of extending coverage in mountainous areas, the most likely developments concerning UHF television in Europe during the next few years are reviewed.