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This paper is a tutorial and a survey of analytical methods in the evaluation of data communication networks. The major mathematical methods are Markov chains applied to discrete time systems and queueing theory. Emphasis is placed on the applications of the mathematical tools. The discussion follows the framework of the layered architecture. In the section on data link control, rigorous as well as "engineering" approaches are highlighted. In this area, models of great accuracy have been developed. In the path-control or routing layer, the major model is provided by Kleinrock's delay analysis of packet networks. Finite buffer pools still pose many problems. The method of the homogeneous network is introduced, a method which reduces complexity originating from the network topology in favor of more realistic protocol features. This thought is expanded into the layer of end-to-end protocols where the tandem-queue model is introduced and its application to the flow-control problem discussed.