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The treatment of cancer by the combined effects of heat and radiation or chemotherapy is a promising procedure which has attracted wide interest. Microwave radiation is one of the most useful techniques for creating thermal fields in tissue but its use is limited by the rapid attenuation of microwaves in propagation through the body. Consequently, the design of microwave radiators which can be hypodermically inserted into tissue or introduced via a body orifice has been undertaken by a number of investigators. We review this work, the results of in vitro and in vivo animal tests, and the present status and outlook for patient treatment by this method.