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This paper describes the results of experiments and simulations made to examine the waveform of leakage current flowing through the surface of HTV (high temperature vulcanized) silicone rubber specimen exposed to clean fog. Water droplets were placed on the surface of specimen energized with AC voltage and investigations of the surface state were done by a high-speed video camera in a wet condition produced by sprayed clean fog. Simultaneously, according to the experimental condition, a dynamic 3-D model was built to calculate the electric field and current density distribution on the specimen surface by a finite element software. A conducting water layer is formed due to the deformation of droplets and the development of dry band arcing. This caused large distortion and nonlinearly which increased the odd harmonic components in the leakage current waveform. This is in good agreement with the simulating calculation. The information from the leakage current frequency characteristic was extracted and correlated with the insulation surface condition. It can be considered as a diagnostic index for electrical characteristics and insulation state of polymer insulators in the wet condition.