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The preparation and properties of direct current electroluminescent (dc EL) materials using manganese-activated ZnS powders for a flat-panel TV display are described. The firing process, the copper coating process, and the ferming process have been investigated. Suitable powder phosphors for the display panel contain 0.1-0.5 wt % manganese and 0.25-0.35 wt % copper coated on the ZnS powder surface. Although the powder-type dc EL still has low luminous efficiency, the light output can be increased to a useful level by exciting the panel with voltage pulses of high peak power. The crosstalk effect in the display panel can also be suppressed, since the brightness is very nonlinear with respect to the applied voltage. The sealing of the panel with silicone oil is effective in lengthening the life of the panel. An experimental dc EL panel with a 13-in diagonal and 50 176 picture elements has been fabricated, capable of reproducing broadcast TV images. These images have a highlight brightness of 10 fL, a contrast ratio of 20:1, a limiting resolution of about 150 TV lines in both horizontal and vertical directions, and a gray-scale capability of 16 steps.