Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window
 

Standard time and frequency generation

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Kartaschoff, Peter ; Laboratoire Suisse de Recherches Horlogères, Neuchâtel, Switzerland ; Barnes, J.A.

The basic properties of atomic primary frequency standards are reviewed. A continuously running frequency source combined with counting, storage, and display devices results in a clock. Time scales are obtained by setting clocks with respect to a convenient origin. The accuracy of a primary frequency standard is a combined theoretical and experimental assessment of the uncertainties of all known possible sources of bias from the idealized definition. Recommended standard measures for the stability are the spectral density of fractional frequency fluctuations (frequency domain) and the two-sample no-dead time Allan variance (time domain). The operation of atomic frequency standards is based on various methods of particle interrogation to observe the transitions, particle confinement to obtain sufficient interaction time, and particle preparation to obtain the desired energy level populations. Passive resonator and active oscillator (maser) modes of operation are discussed; the former has some fundamental advantages. A review of the state of the art and current practice shows that cesium beam resonator standards have the best documented accuracy capability (5 × 10-13) and, in their commercial versions, are presently the best available clocks. There are three concepts related to time: time interval, date, and synchronization. In order to assign dates to events, time scales have to be established. The steadily growing need for a very precise and uniform time scale has resulted in a new internationally coordinated time scale, IAT. Frequency metrology will have increasing impact on both length and voltage metrology in the near future.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 5 )

Date of Publication:

May 1972

Need Help?


IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.