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Typically, educational procedures emphasize the transmission of textbook content to the mind of the student. Many persons question the merit of this approach, and believe that a problem-oriented emphasis promises to be better. A four-year experience with problem-oriented approaches to electrical engineering undergraduate instruction is described. Here the learner searches for principles, concepts, facts, and techniques in solving a contiguous set of problems developed by the instructor. The monologue of the lecture is deemphasized in favor of dialogue in small groups. The learner uses all resources (texts, lectures, laboratory, computer, classmates, student advisors) to find his best solution to each problem, but ultimately he must justify his solution in a small group discussion. The experience described indicates that problem-oriented approaches can be simultaneously more effective and less expensive than the lecture approaches.