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A general treatment of collision hazard is developed which expresses the relationship between separation standards, velocity and acceleration limits, surveillance accuracy, communication delays, sampling frequency, maneuver severity, and intervention frequency. An example of separation standards achievable through the use of an upgraded beacon system is given. The relations presented permit optimization of air traffic control systems with regard to collision safety and will permit comparisons between different proposed systems. They should assist in reviewing separation standards when changes in procedures, types of available data, or data accuracy are planned. Further, the procedures outlined could provide real-time assistance in hazard evaluation to the air traffic control process.