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A review of the recent developments in the field of random fluctuations of an electromagnetic wave propagated over a line-of-sight path is presented. The major interest is in the optical to millimeter wavelength range where fluctuations in amplitude, phase, and angle-of-arrival are important system considerations. It is assumed that the fluctuations are the result of variations in the refractive index caused by turbulence in the atmosphere. The review concentrates on the major approximations involved in the theoretical developments, and in particular, attempts to put in perspective the arguments over Rytov's method. The paper includes a number of previously untranslated results from the Russian literature, and some previously unpublished results of the author's. A brief assessment of new theoretical approaches and a discussion of some extremely important experimental work are given.