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Applications of the techniques of scanning electron microscopy to solid-state devices are reviewed from the device point of view. An explanation is given of the Scanning Electron Microscope and of the phenomena in this instrument currently judged to be of greatest pertinence to devices. The simultaneous observation of physical topography and voltage contrast is explained, and Scanning electron micrographs of actual device structures are presented. Application of this instrument to the polymerization of photoresist films is also discussed, and it is shown that a factor of five to ten improvement in the control of edge sharpness is obtained over images produced by conventional optical techniques. The implications of these techniques to the fabrication of microdevices are discussed in the terms of a relatively simple field-effect device structure.