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Aiming at infrared image characteristics, target recognition about far transmission infrared image was researched. An algorithm was proposed based on improved median filter and image sharpening. First, median filter was improved, and improved median filter was applied to infrared image to reduce image noise. Then Laplacian sharpening was applied to infrared image. The simulation experiment result was satisfied. Finally, a conclusion was obtained. For target recognition about far transmission infrared image, improved median filter is first applied to infrared image, then Laplacian sharpening is applied to the image. Finally, target recognition can be effectively realized. In addition, the algorithm is in favor of real time image processing.