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Communication scheduling to minimize thermal effects of implanted biosensor networks in homogeneous tissue

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4 Author(s)
Tang, Q. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA ; Tummala, N. ; Gupta, S.K.S. ; Schwiebert, L.

A network of biosensors can be implanted in a human body for health monitoring, diagnostics, or as a prosthetic device. Biosensors can be organized into clusters where most of the communication takes place within the clusters, and long range transmissions to the base station are performed by the cluster leader to reduce the energy cost. In some applications, the tissues are sensitive to temperature increase and may be damaged by the heat resulting from normal operations and the recharging of sensor nodes. Our work is the first to consider rotating the cluster leadership to minimize the heating effects on human tissues. We explore the factors that lead to temperature increase, and the process for calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase of implanted biosensors by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We improve performance by rotating the cluster leader based on the leadership history and the sensor locations. We propose a simplified scheme, temperature increase potential, to efficiently predict the temperature increase in tissues surrounding implanted sensors. Finally, a genetic algorithm is proposed to exploit the search for an optimal temperature increase sequence.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 7 )