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This paper deals with a method based on vibroacoustic techniques to diagnose electric trains and other important railway components. The proposed method can detect the following main subsystems: pantographs, electrical contact lines, rails, bogies, wheels, etc. Signal-processing techniques are thoroughly applied to acoustic vibrations that are directly acquired on the field when the train is transiting. Signals are picked up, processed, and stored by acquisition systems installed along the railway on structures jointed to the soil. The processed data can be sent to a remote dedicated diagnostic center to get continuous monitoring and supervision of the railway system. The received diagnostic information can be conveniently used to improve safety, to schedule a correct maintenance, and to reduce costs. The results of the experimental tests conducted to validate the method during an extensive measurement program are reported and commented.