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This paper examines geoacoustic inversion over a range-dependent multiple-layer seabed using a towed acoustic source and towed horizontal array. The approach is based on combining the results of a series of short-range, range-independent inversions to form a range-dependent representation of the environment. The data were collected in the Strait of Sicily during the MAPEX 2000 experiment. Issues such as the resolvability of multilayer structure and the sensitivity of various geoacoustic parameters are investigated by inversion of simulated data and by comparison of the MAPEX 2000 inversion results to a high-resolution seismic profile and to sediment core measurements. It appears that two, and in some cases possibly three, sediment layers can be resolved.